2.10 Rapport, learning and teaching:ents was an important factor that associated with growth in achievement from 8th to 12th grade.
Hamre and Pianta (2004) confirmed that teacher mental health plays an important role relationship with students. For example, a depressed teacher who is less sensitive cannot have positive relationship with students. Zeller and Pianta (2004) commented that some teachers have problems in their personal lives and also they have problems in establishing emotional or behavioral boundaries with students. These teachers report their relationship with students as a source of emotional support and comfort. Researchers know about the consequences of this type of emotional investment on the part of teachers, but extensive research proves that a lack of boundaries can be harmful to children’s social development. Both teacher and students can influence each other from the moment they enter a classroom. These impressions are important in the formation of the relationships that develop over the course of the school year.
Lynch and Cicchetti (1997) suggested that some characteristics, such as gender, are both statics and readily apparent to teachers, whereas others are more psychological or behavioral in nature. Students’ relationships with teachers change from elementary to high school. These relationships between teachers and students become less personal, more formal, more evaluative and more competitive. According to Roeser and Galloway (2002), those changes can lead to more negative self-evaluations and attitudes toward learning because the impersonal and evaluative nature of the relational context in junior high school does not match well with the students’ relational needs. Harter (1996) explained that these differences connect to students who have lower levels of intrinsic motivation. Thus there is not a positive relationship between teacher and student and cannot match the developmental needs of the students. As Bracken and Crain (1994) stated girls tend to form closer and less conflicting relationship with their teachers than do boys. Drevets, Benton, and Bradley (1996) expressed that it is difficult to determine whether this consistent finding is a reflection of gender bias or unsuitable female teaching work force in elementary and middle schools. According to adolescent literature, relationship with teacher for both girls and boys is similar, but lack of change in staffing of elementary and middle school can leave some consequences: Boys are at greater risk of relational difficulties in school.
Hamre and Pianta (2001) revealed that other student characteristics can be linked to developed relationship between student and teacher such as their own social and academic competencies and problems, in particular disruptive behavior such as observed, self-reported, and teacher reported is consistently associated with formation of less supportive and more conflicting relationships. As noted by Ladd (1999), this link between behavior and relationships may be the result of the relational style of students. Skinner and Belmont (1993) put that students and teachers change information consistently. This view of interaction can be reinforcing or not. This perspective makes the link between interaction and participant interpretation of information embedded in interaction explicit, which is consistent with the focus on relational units of analysis. Furthermore, the qualities of information or how it is exchanged like tone of voice, posture and proximity, timing of behavior may be even more important than what is actually said or done. Student motivation provides a positive relationship between students and the teacher. As an example, a study on teachers of upper elementary students found that students had positive perceptions of the teacher when teachers were more involved with students within the social environment. An advantage was that the teacher fostered student’s classroom engagement and that engagement made the teacher became more involved. Crosnoe (2004) concluded that relationship between students and teacher is not in isolation. They are a part of larger school community that may support or constrain the development of positive relationship. It is difficult to state that relationship between students and teacher and environment of the school does not have any influence on one another, and this relationship does not change as students grow older and their experiences become more widely distributed within a school. Roeser (1998) observed that the link between students and teacher makes students feel supported by their teachers, and smaller communities of teachers and students are important in increasing young adolescent’s motivation and emotional wellbeing. Unfortunately in most middle schools, students do not have much time to spend with the teacher every day. So they cannot form a close connection with their teacher. Enhance students’ motivation reduce and hostility and increases. In other word, these relationships may increase by external factors such as the atmosphere and physical features of schools and classrooms.
Felner, Favazza, Shim, and Brand (2001) conveyed that there is often a mismatch between conditions and the developmental needs one of which is to form functional, effective, supportive relationships with peers and with adults in the school setting. Hence the structure or organization of a school community greatly affects the way students and teachers feel about the time they spend at school. Battistich, Solomon, Watson, and Schaps (1997) ascertained that a positive school atmosphere can develop students self confidence, teachers belief that they can be effective in their jobs, and have an atmosphere of cordiality in students-teacher relationships. Researchers showed that schools can be beneficial by building and keeping supportive, caring relationships between teachers and students. Additionally, increasing the amount of time that teachers and students spend together can foster relationship between them. Felner (2001) proposed that if teachers have more time for meeting and discussing with students, thus, they can build a sense of continuity and community and also stabilize contact between students and a teacher or teachers. Clearly if teachers know about students’ life outside the classroom so they can connect with them on a more personal level and foster a positive relationship with them. Greenberg, Kusche, Cook, and Quamma (1995) argued that teachers should provide students with opportunities to talk about their problems and situations in a safe and supportive environment. This way they can increase positive relationship among students. Brophy and Kher (1985) cited that positive relationship has an important role in promoting students motivation to learn. Teachers can simply motivate students by being nice to them. Both teachers Thus, and students benefit and students support this relationship and use the ability of teachers to feel successful in educational pursuits.
Wells (1996) elaborated that when students moved from middle school to high school, they experienced anxiety and apprehension because their teachers had warned them that high school would be difficult and more demanding. Wells (1996) remarked that many of teachers did not consider their students’ emotions and they do not have any close relationship with them. Thus students consider their teacher and classroom boring. In this case, Oldfather and Thomas (1998) explained that teachers should know about importance of sharing, not only about themselves but also about their passion for teaching and learning, to promote students learning and motivation. Harter, Waters, and Whitesell (1997) studied that process of authenticity of revealing who they are and encouraging their students to do the same, not only for establishing rapport with students but for developing Connections between students’ lives and the academic material. According to Muller, Katz, and Dance (1999), addressing the importance of students-teacher relationships in high school often emerge from interest in understanding the process of disaffection and dropping out. They also noted that the process of school alienation and dropping out does not happen overnight. Rather, dropping out represented a long-term response to students’ failed attempts to connect with school.
2.11The relationship between student and teacher
The relationship between teachers and students has a profound impact on student behavior motivation, and achievement. Davis (2003) focused on the quality of students relationships, particularly student’s relationships with teachers that influence student’s social, emotional, motivation and academic success. Eble and Kibler (1988) explained that the best method for reducing large scale cheating is to create an atmosphere which is not conducive to cheating when good rapport exists between students and professors and among students themselves, cheating drastically reduces. It is much easier to cheat when a professor is cold and aloof. Researchers also added student knows that the professor does not know her or his name finds it easier to cheat than a student who is known to the professor by name. Students cheat significantly less in a class with shared objectives and where there is an obvious excitement in learning. Any class where students feel that the professor is a partner in learning will have a low incidence of cheating. Professors who develop a reputation of writing fair tests and of grading fairly will have less cheating on their test than professors with a reputation of writing