s issue as cheating could be beneficial in looking at ways to prevent and address this problem in future.
Key words: academic dishonesty, rapport, cheating
Academic dishonesty or cheating is not restricted to a certain country or geographical area, but it is a universal phenomenon in educational institutions. Cheating has become a major concern on many high schools and colleges and its frequency is reportedly on the rise. Cheating refers to an immoral way of achieving a goal. Johnson and Martin (2005) showed that technological advances have made academic dishonesty easier to accomplish and harder for the faculty to identify. Symaco and Marcele (2003) studied that students sometimes consider cheating as a normal incidence and something ordinary moreover, they also discuss some factors in the school, such as classroom environment facilitates academic dishonesty in student body. Educators and employers are concerned about students cheating, because it impacts on the quality of education and reliability of assessment. Murdock and Anderman (2006) suggested that cheating on academic work involves different kinds of psychological phenomena, including learning, development, and motivation. These phenomena form the core of the educational psychology. From the perspective of learning, cheating is a strategy that acts as a cognitive shortcut, whereas effective learning often involves the use of complex self-regulatory and cognitive strategies or simply because they do not want to invest on time in using such strategies. From a developmental perspective, cheating may occur in different quantities and qualities depending on student’s levels of cognitive, social, and moral development. Thus cheating occurs less in younger children than in adolescents. Anderman and Midgley (2004) believe these developmental differences are due to changes both in student’s cognitive abilities and adolescents interaction. For example, cheating may be more likely to occur in middle and high school classrooms than in elementary school classrooms, because the instructional practices used in middle schools and high schools are more focused on grades and ability than is the case in elementary schools. Murdock and Anderman (2006) indicated that from a motivational perspective, learners report many different reasons for engaging in cheating. For example, some students cheat because they are highly focused on extrinsic outcomes such as grades, while others cheat because they are concerned with maintaining a certain image to themselves or to their peers, and others cheat because they do not have the requisite self-efficacy to engage in complex tasks or because of the types of attributions they have developed. Graves (2008) claimed that students who cheat on tests are more likely to engage in dishonest activities in the workplace than those who do not. In this study, the researcher wants to be aware of what factors motivate students to cheat and what deter them from cheating.
1.2 Statement of the problem
Since cheating is obviously immoral, it provides an unfair advantage and hinders learning. As Drake (1941) pointed out, cheating can hurt instructors who may interpret such behavior as directed to themselves. The international center for academic integrity at Clemon University indicated that about 70% of the students engaged in some forms of cheating during their education process. Johnson and Martin (2005) noted that students use new techniques of cheating. Cheaters are using technology to undermine academic integrity and students are becoming innovative in their cheating methodologies. Staats, Hupp, Wallace, and Gresley (2009) stated that academic dishonesty in schools can be another form of student deviant behavior. It may harm other students and put integrity of university at risk.
1.3 Significance of the study
Nowadays, cheating has become a serious problem among high school students in society and they receive good grades by cheating. Therefore, these grades are used as a measure of how good the student is, as it can be a measure of knowledge, talent, and competency. A few researchers like Passow (2006) and Bouville (2010) expressed that acts of academic dishonesty undermine the validity of the measure of learning. Teachers do not notice of what students do not understand if there are elements of cheating among them. It will be difficult for teachers to regulate their approaches of instruction as they assume students are performing well which might not be true. Cheating hurts students and prevents teachers from providing necessary and relevant feedback to their students in the learning process. These are the reasons which motivated the researcher to conduct a study.
1.4 Purpose of the study
This study aims of investigating the relationship between teacher-students rapport and students’ willingness to cheat. Second, it purports to investigate the techniques used by students to cheat on examination and measures taken by educators and administrators to prevent them from cheating, because it is important to prepare students for college and their future life experiences through the ownership of their own ideas and actions.
1.5 Research questions
In order to fulfill the purposes of this study, the following research questions are raised:
1-Is there any significant relationship between teacher-students rapport and student’s willingness to cheat?
2-Can investigations of techniques help educators prevent cheating?
1.6 Research Hypotheses
In the present study, the hypotheses will be directional. So, the research hypotheses will be as follows:
1. There is a negative relationship between teacher-students rapport and students’ willingness to cheat.
2. By investigating of techniques, educators can find ways to prevent cheating.
1.7 Definition of key words
Rapport: It is the “ability to maintain harmonious relationships based on affinity for others” (Faranda and Clarke, 2004, p.271)
Academic dishonesty: Cizek (2003) provides a less limiting definition. He states that cheating behaviors fall into three categories: (1) “giving, taking, or receiving information,”(2), “using any prohibited materials,” and (3) “capitalizing on the
weaknesses of persons, procedures, or processes to gain an advantage” on
academic work (p. 42).
Plagiarism: Fialkoff (1993) explained that the term plagiarism is usually used to refer to the theft of words or ideas, beyond what would normally be regarded as general knowledge.
Cheating: Cheating is “to act dishonestly or unfairly in order to win some profit
or advantage” (Ehrlich, Flexner, Carruth, & Hawkins, 1980, p. 141).
1.8 Limitation and delimitation:
Certain limitations were recognized in this research. First, the researcher used a self-report measure of cheating, whereas this measure had been used successfully in other studies and it is not a direct measure of cheating yet. As noted by Anderman (1998), “it is difficult to measure actual cheating behaviors, because the nature of cheating precludes direct observation” (p.84). Although this research examines individual growth trajectories, it also investigates between-subjects differences in self-reported cheating. Thereby, future studies of cheating should be designed to account for the fact that between-subjects differences may not lead to direct conclusions about the causes of individual instances of cheating.
Review of Literature
According to literature, academic dishonesty has become a serious problem among college and high school students. In this chapter we will review some of the literature concerning the relationship between teacher student rapport and students willingness to cheat.
2.2 Cheating and its types
Anderman and Midgley(2004) explained that students cheating relates to both individual and situational variables, such as motivational, moral, and developmental factors. The motivational and academic environment may cause different types of cheating behavior. Students who like to show their abilities to others may use cheating methods that reflect this particular goal orientation. As a result, a student with a high performance might engage in cheating behavior, such as coping off another student’s exam, plagiarizing a term paper, or using unauthorized sources to complete graded work, but likely he/she would not help others with cheating behaviors. Murdock, Miller, and Kohlhardt (2004) suggested that as well as this competent, situational goal orientation can influence student’s